Monday, September 30, 2019

Mathematics And Being Mathematical Education Essay

Are making mathematics and being mathematical separate thoughts? The reply lies in our apprehension of mathematics itself. Devlin ( 2005 ) explains that mathematics is ‘recognizing and pull stringsing forms ‘ while Barton ( 2009, p.5 ) describes being mathematical as prosecuting an question. When combined, the two thoughts represent the geographic expedition of mathematical constructs through the usage of problem-solving and logical thinking ( Baroody, Coslick, & A ; Wilkins, 1998, p.1-13 ) . Pratt ( 2006, p.52 ) supports this theory by claiming that in order ‘to ‘do ‘ maths†¦ we must hold a job to work out ‘ . He continues by proposing that the word ‘problem ‘ is replaced with ‘enquiry ‘ , making lessons that promote the acquisition of mathematics through the application and development of cognition and accomplishments. This, consecutive, should forestall the accomplishments from being considered as stray pieces of inf ormation. Fact-finding and question based acquisition can authorise kids ( Wassermann, 2000, p.14 ) by leting them to be actively involved in, and have control over, their acquisition. The usage of open-ended probe has ‘the possible to increase the math talk in the schoolroom ‘ ( National Research Council, 2009, p.246 ) , and with linguistic communication playing a critical function in cognitive development ( Vygotsky & A ; Bruner, cited in Stierer & A ; Maybin, 1993, p.xi ) , it is logical that the usage of mathematical linguistic communication is considered when judging the quality of instruction and acquisition ( OfSTED, 2010 ) . During a recent lesson observation, I witnessed students discoursing their responses to the inquiry, ‘The reply is 42. What is the inquiry? ‘ The kids were captured by the openness of the undertaking and enjoyed pass oning their thoughts and the logical thinking behind them. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics ( 2009, p.3 ) discusses the value of interchanging thoughts when larning mathematics and suggests that it can, ‘help scholars sharpen their ability to ground, speculation, and do connexions ‘ . Teachers do, nevertheless, need to be able to ‘scaffold the treatment by [ utilizing ] careful oppugning ‘ ( Bottle, 2005, pp.122-123 ) in order to vouch that the treatment is valuable, develops understanding and remains unfastened. The usage of open-ended inquiring does, nevertheless, require that kids accept that there may non be an ultimate end to work towards ( Yeo, 2007, p.7 ) . This poses several challenges, including the possibility that unexpected acquisition may happen ( Yeo, 2007, p.9 ) . Good instruction, nevertheless, means being able to transform unexpected finds into chances for farther acquisition ( Idris, 2006, p.53 ) . I observed an illustration of this during a lesson [ Appendix A ] where students were invited to utilize a map to look into the distances of possible paths to given finishs. Students began their probe by specializing ; choosing a finish and so ciphering the distances utilizing a graduated table. The bulk of students focused, as anticipated, on the roads, nevertheless one group chose to compare pedestrianised paths with those of vehicles, ensuing in unexpected treatments that linked mensurating distances to clip and velocity. Their logical thinking was that they conjectured that so me finishs might be reached more easy by going on pes and they tested this during the probe. This illustration reveals that the kids, when presented with an open-ended question, were believing creatively, and showing their ability to inter-link mathematical constructs and present farther inquiries when presented with a existent life context. This illustration besides confirmed that students were utilizing and using in mathematics by practising the appropriate accomplishments identified in counsel by the TheA Department for Education and Skills ( DfES. , 2006a, p.4 ) . With these accomplishments besides being attributed to fact-finding work ( Yeo & A ; Yeap, 2010, p.4 ) , it is sensible to presume that mathematical probes will back up the accomplishment of the National Curriculum ‘s utilizing and using aims. Measuring the degree or accomplishment of the aims has the potency, nevertheless, to be debatable ( Klavir & A ; Hershkovitz, 2008, p.2 ) although this can be addressed by instructors working collaboratively with students to measure the effectivity of their probes ( TDA. , 2008, p.8, Q28 ) . I observed an illustration of students utilizing and measuring their fact-finding accomplishments during a lesson where they, when presented with a figure mystifier [ Appendix B ] , began by specializing utilizing a given illustration, and so formed speculations about forms that might look. This provided them with a focal point for their question, and the assurance to prove their thoughts which resulted in the bulk of students organizing generalizations about the forms created by the Numberss. Each group so explained the concluding behind their chosen methods and decisions with the remainder of the category pass oning their ideas on the effectivity of the chosen schemes. The pupils work [ Appendices C & A ; D ] clearly shows that they were able to organize speculations at assorted points in the probe, proposing that they were constructing on their bing cognition, a procedure identified by Piaget as indispensable for cognitive development ( Slavin, 1994, p.32 ) and besides a critical constituent to constructivist acquisition ( Boghossian, 2006, p.714 ) . The kids who were able to generalize, did so as a consequence of effectual communicating and following a systematic attack to their probe. Conversely, some students struggled to place any numerical relationships as a consequence of lacks in their ability to cipher expeditiously. This type of battle can, nevertheless, be good to larning. John Stewart Mill ( n.d. ) one time said, ‘The student, who is ne'er required to make what he can non make, ne'er does what he can make ‘ . This doctrine of instruction is supported by Vygotsky ‘s claim ( Slavin, 1994, p49 ) that kids need to travel out of their comfort zone if they are to accomplish their possible and theA DfES ( 2006a, p.8 ) upholds this thought by explicating that disputing undertakings are important when developing job work outing schemes. However, although outlooks need to be high ( TDA. , 2008, p.8, Q1 ) they besides need to be realistic ( Malone, 2003, p.239 ) and therefore it is indispensable that all instructors are cognizant of kids ‘s current degrees of apprehension and, as a consequence, program suitably differentiated activities ( TDA. , 2008, p.8, Q10 ) that enabled all kids to win ( Kendall-Seatter, 2005, p.3 ) . In drumhead, by uniting directed instruction of mathematical techniques with learning the procedures of fact-finding mathematics ( DfES, 2006b, p65 ) , kids can larn to utilize fact-finding accomplishments jointly to work out jobs and to research the universe around them. Using these accomplishments creates successful scholars who can utilize errors to assist them to come on and who enjoy larning ( Rose, 2009, p.34 ) . By developing oppugning accomplishments, kids can larn to organize insightful speculations that they will be motivated to prove and turn out. Communicating will let them to widen their thoughts ( Cockcroft, 1982, p.73 ) and unfastened, disputing and meaningful jobs will animate intrinsic motive ( Pratt, 2006, p.51 ) and let them to ‘do ‘ mathematics and be mathematical.

Sunday, September 29, 2019


Variety show is about showing talents and skills using creative minds. It is a way of entertaining people and getting socialize to other persons that are new and close to you. It is also a way in improving a person’s self –confidence and to help a person in getting socialize and interact with other people. When we start practicing for our variety, we encounter so many problems like misunderstanding and lack of cooperation but it didn’t affect our performance . Instead we do our best to have a wonderful and creative show. We prepare so many things to entertain our audience like we have fire dance, band, modeling and other things.When we started to performed in front of so many people we feel nervous and happy because all of our efforts and talents are can be share and shown to other people. All of classmates are cheering to each one of us to give strength and to help boost each of one’s self-confidence. At the end of our show you can see from their faces th at they are truly happy with what they done for the variety show, you can see to each one of us the laughter and the tears in getting flat one grade in our variety show. For me our show was totally great and worth remembering for although we had so many mistakes in our performance.I realize so many things after our variety show that we need to arrive early to have much time in preparing for our variety show and when you are performing in front, you must focus on audience faces . The audience should be the central focus of everything you do. Don't go over their heads unless it's the only thing keeping you upright. Make eye contact, smile at them, and feed of that energy . I enjoyed very much our first variety show in college and I would really treasure it for the rest of my life. Submitted by: Leedee Liane S. Carbonilla

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Issued of the ligalization of drugs Research Paper

Issued of the ligalization of drugs - Research Paper Example Illegalization of various drugs such as cocaine, marijuana and heroin creates a major social problem and conflicts in the society thus making the government lose substantial financial resources annual. The government should therefore legalize the use of drugs and create effective systems that are easy to manage in order to curb the menace s the discussion below portrays. Legalizing drugs has more advantages than the current state of affairs has. Some of the illegal drugs have medicinal value a feature that continues to enhance their usage. A drug like marijuana is among the most commonly abused dug in the United States. Users of such rugs cite its medicinal value. As such, the government should make marijuana a prescription drug a feature that would ease access to such drugs thus limiting the violence and crime often associated with the illegal outfits that peddle the drugs. â€Å"Decriminalization of drugs would lower the cost of regulating the use of the drugs in the society since it creates systematic structures for the supervision of the industry† (Leuw and Marshall 89). Legalizing the drug would lower the cost of sustaining the various law enforcement agencies in the country. As stated earlier, the government spends billions of taxpayers’ money in running various police outfits and correctional facilities most of which are strained by the high number of drug offenders â€Å"most of the inmates in penitentiaries have drug related cases. Marijuana is the most common case in the prisons† (Husak 121). This implies that by legalizing such a simple drug as marijuana, the government would save billions of dollars for use in other sectors of the economy thus enhancing the economic growth in the country. The reduction in the pressure in such facilities would create room for the effective and efficient management of the prisons thus enhancing the creation of a cohesive

Friday, September 27, 2019

Assessing The Impact Of Saudi Aramcos Appraisal System On Its Essay

Assessing The Impact Of Saudi Aramcos Appraisal System On Its Employees' Morale And Performanc - Essay Example Human Resource Department also noticed that almost all non-Saudi employees resign once they receive better jobs offer. In light of Industrial Security letter and Human Resources findings, it is clear that the employees’ commitment and morale is at unprecedentedly low level and as a result, Saudi Aramco management’s new challenge is to motivate, recognize, increase self-belonging and reward their employees properly to ensure their optimum productivity. The lack of commitment and interest to work is attributed by many, to the employees’ â€Å"below expectation† appraisals and rewards although, the current appraisal system has been used since 2003 and hence it is considered as fairly new appraisal system. This research is intended to provide Saudi Aramco’s management with sufficient reasoning on how vital the current appraisal system can be on the success of the company and its employees. Saudi Aramco’s appraisal and reward systems are based on two components: †¢ A Performance Management Program (PMP) that utilizes a five-categories rating scale in apprising their employees. †¢ A multi stage forced ranking criteria. The old appraisal system was a simple word document filled by the supervisor that contains tasks completed, strength areas, and weakness areas, development areas. To overcome the many disadvantages of the old system, Saudi Aramco shifted to a Performance Management Program (PMP).... The PMP, according to the company; is a continuous, three-phase cycle of planning, managing, and reviewing performance. Within each phase, the supervisor and the employee will both have responsibilities. PMP is not something to be done to employees, it is an activity undertaken with employees. It is a partnership. The Performance Management Program (PMP) is designed to: Improve the performance of Aramco and its employees. Enable supervisors and employees to plan and review performance. Provide a forum for career planning discussions. Figure 1: PMP process The PMP utilizes a five-categories rating scale ranging from â€Å"S† which is significantly exceeds job requirements to â€Å"D† which is dissatisfactory performance. Each of the five-categories has a range of annual salary increase percentages for example; â€Å"S† category ranges from (9-11%) increase while â€Å"M† which is meeting job requirements ranges from (2-4%) increase. An employee’s per formance is being measured by the supervisor against some competences and goals accomplished during the year (Murphy & Cleveland, 1995). Then, the general supervisor meets with his supervisors where they start discussing and defending their employees having in mind that the stronger the supervisor is the greater the chance that the employee will get a satisfactory appraisal rating. Once this stage is completed, the manager meets with his general supervisors to discuss and approve their employees rating. Again, the stronger the general supervisor is, the greater the chance that the employees will get a satisfactory appraisal rating. Figure 2: Rating Factors 1.2. Problem Statement: Evaluation of an individual work performance as a formal management procedure is

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Is the one-child policy in China effective Is it ethical Are there Essay - 1

Is the one-child policy in China effective Is it ethical Are there other solutions - Essay Example On the other hand, the policy allows people who have their first babies as girls to have another child but, regardless of the gender of the second child, the parents are not allowed to have a third one. For rural Chinese, access to different services is limited and the different family planning attempts are not popular in such place of China, which make 60 percent of the total population of China. The one child policy in China has negative effects and can be subjected to critical ethical consideration to find whether it is effective and any alternative step to be taken. This policy by the Chinese government has been aimed at reducing the country’s population growth rate. China is factually one of the most populated countries in the world, with an estimated population of 1,354,040,000, which is 100 million more than the world’s second largest country, India. Culturally, the Chinese community believes in the tradition of having many children. Whilst the government is concerned about the demographics of the country and planning on the resources distribution to its ever rising population, the people are concerned with how they need to maintain their culture. As a result of the ever growing population, the government has increasingly strengthened its policies and measures to a point of introducing the one child policy. This is a strict measure by the government which is aimed at reducing the number of the young generation and subsequently increasing the number of the aging population. Data available on the Chinese population is worrying ev en to the government itself. The figure 1,354,040,000 does not include the island of Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau which are governed as administrative districts of China. One child policy in China also called the family planning policy was designed to limit the number of children couple in different areas can get and the different conditions of that can allow different people to have more than

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

French Politics and Public Policy Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

French Politics and Public Policy - Case Study Example An examination of the theoretical and ideological apparatuses that precipitated this political shift along with a presentation of cultural and political events that led to a realignment of political strategies of the two parties will be followed by an inquiry into the organizational and leadership practices and beliefs of the two groups. The subsequent analysis of the ebb and flow of the respective fortunes of the PS and PCF should reveal that the Political Left in France has operated under a "Coalition as Rivalry"2 paradigm to the ultimate benefit of the PS and the seemingly irrecoverable detriment of the PCF. Forming out of the Section Francaise de I'lnternationale Ouvriere (SFIO) in 1905, the Socialist Party was cobbled together with an uneasy mix of Marxists, members of worker's parties, revolutionaries and reformists.3 The uneasiness of this arrangement eventually led to a splintering of the "feeble" alliance and at the 1920 Congress of Tour, what was to become the PCF was formed.4 The rather hard ideological line of the PCF illustrated by the slogan, "sovietization outrance" is indicative of the affiliation that French Communists had at the time with Soviet Politburo.5 The Socialists and Communists did briefly come together in an unofficial capacity, along with the radicals in a mid-1930's movement known as the Popular Front. That coalition was interrupted by WWII. After WWII, much of the left was united against Gaullism though nevertheless splintered over the issue of Algerian Independence. The start of the Fifth Republic saw perpetuation of the orthodox commitments of the Communist Party in France despite growing dissention among the ranks in the European left. These parties, including ones in Britain, Italy, and Hungary were experiencing a mass exodus of party faithful and a philosophical crisis of faith. The PCF however remained nominally loyal to their Leninist-Stalinist roots, exemplified by their indignation and recrimination of the "Khrushchev Thaw."6 The SFIO, beginning at the end of the Fourth Republic and continuing into the Fifth Republic, struggled to define itself ideologically between centrist factions and the committed PCF, and as such saw a steady decline through the 1950s and 1960s.7 Despite attempts by SFIO to form alliances and create coalitions with the Radicals and remaining non-Communist remnants of the Popular Front, 1969 saw electoral disaster when Gaston Defferre, the newly formed PS candidate for president received less than 5% of the electoral vote.8 The French Left overall suffered losses in the National Assembly throughout the first two post-war decades, representing 60% of the vote in 1945 to just under 40% in 1968. Figure 19 The primary issue for the Left and specifically for the Communists was motivating its constituents in the economically and politically stable milieu of Gaullist France.10 As one commentator described it, "What is certain is that the France of 1968 does not seem able to give itself the luxury of a political

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Occupational Safety and Health Act Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 123

Occupational Safety and Health Act - Essay Example The employer should provide all safety information required by the employee to assess their workplace safety based on the requirements of the OSHA. The information should be provided in a language understandable by the employee (OSHA, 2015). In addition, an employee has the right to access the results from hazard inspections in the workplace. The employee is also provided with the right to access medical records of the workplace based on injuries and illnesses. Records of medical history can also be accessed by the employee (OSHA, 2014).Self-employed persons are not covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA, 2015). This is based on that the Act only covers employees who may have the work rights violated. In the case of self-employed persons, the responsibility to provide safe workplace is on themselves. In addition, the Act provide for both employee and employer, the parties are absent in self-employment. Immediate family members of farm owners who only employ family me mbers to the farm are not covered by the OSHA (OSHA, 2015). The family members are partially viewed as owners since this type of farm may be viewed as a family business. Consequently, all workers in the farm are viewed more as family members than employees. The OSHA also does not provide for working hazards that are under mandate of another Federal Agency (OSHA, 2014). For instance, mine safety coast guards provide specifications for employees in their own industry. When an employee realizes violation of a safe working environment, they may file a complaint with the OSHA. The complaint may be filed through email contact to the agency or by the physical visit to the nearest office. The OSHA may contact the employer based on the complaints filed (OSHA, 2015). However, the employee may insist on the inspection of their workplace. The employee is also not required to leave their place of work after filing the complaint.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Compare and Contrast the Spaniards' Attitudes toward the Native Essay

Compare and Contrast the Spaniards' Attitudes toward the Native Culture and People They Encountered with the Aztec - Essay Example The modern appreciation of historical facts gave birth to a thorough analysis of the events of the past and what the Western historians were at times unable to point out or those that were dismissed. Essentially, there were things that must be taken into consideration. â€Å"The conquistadors caught a fleeting glance of a civilization with a theology and symbolism as complex as contemporary Catholicism† (Fagan, p.343). The full understanding of any story must involve weighing in all possible accounts of what took place. It cannot be limited to an assertion inferred as fundamental facts. The same goes for a deeper understanding of the Conquistadors arrival and their colonization of the Aztecs. Limiting to the Spaniards’ accounts and personal inclinations gives rise to bias so that revisiting the available accounts of the natives must be integrated. This illuminates any historical reading to have an impartial assessment to reconcile facts from fiction. What Bernal Diaz pr ovided in â€Å"The True History of the Conquest of New Spain† was a personal account of the battle with the Aztecs. It was a vivid narration that aims to disclose the true occurrences of the battle to provide for a more genuine description to put to rest all other claims proliferated by others. It contained detailed descriptions of the practices of the actual encounter. The most graphic were the practices of the natives on their captives, â€Å"with stone knives they sawed open their chests and drew out their palpitating hearts and offered them to the idols that were there, and they kicked the bodies down the steps, and Indian butchers who were waiting below cut off the arms and feet and flayed (the skin off) the faces† (Diaz, n.p.). The autobiographical account described the cannibalistic practices of the natives. The cries of the people on the destruction of their city, though veiled through the words of Diaz, seem to be valid reason for their anger. The people soug ht for the reconstruction of what they have lost. Diaz, as Wyman noted in her introduction came from a more deprived background wherein his venture into foreign land was for personal gain. The mind of a soldier and his hardships primarily regulate his point of view. The brotherhood among soldiers and their sufferings would be most palpable to him. This is apparent in the account as a strict narrative of a battle. This particular endeavour was the principal reason for his ascent into the social strata which maintains his courageous stance amidst the difficulties. Inadvertently, Diaz divulged Aztec practices such as how women helped the men by making their crude weapons including the preparation of the stones for their slings and in the sounding of the devices. In contrast to the narrative of Diaz, Hernan Cortes presents to the monarchy a descriptive account of the city of Temixtitlan under Moctezuma. He illustrates a place filled with life and vitality. It is one where there are soci al centers filled with economic growth. The market is filled with products and various trades. There are also specialized shops such as apothecaries and an indication of medicinal application including the sale of much sought after herbs and spices. â€Å"This Province is in the form of a circle, surrounded on all sides by lofty and

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Dalai Lama Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Dalai Lama - Research Paper Example About India he said that he was not satisfied with the present condition of India because though there is less violence but also there is too much corruption and exploitation. Dalai Lama directed Tibetan Government for certain periods between the 17th century and 1962. As per his view the institution of Dalai Lama may be abolished in the future. He won the Nobel Peace prize in 1989. Dalai Lama is also well known for his lifelong advocacy for the people of Tibet. He was selected at the age of 15 as the rebirth of 13th Dalai Lama and formally known as fourteenth Dalai Lama from the year 1950. The name of the fourteenth Dalai Lama name is Tenzin Gyatso remained the head of the state for the Central Tibetan Administration [Tibetan government in exile] until his retirement in 2011[March 14]. Tenzin Gyatso was born in the year 1935 [July, 6] in a small village of Taktser in northeastern Tibet. He was belonging to a Tibetan farming family. When he was at the age of three then his life was changed forever. He was identified by a search party of Buddhist officials. After that he was separated from his parents. He was transferred to a monastery for study where his elder brother was already studying in the same place and it reduced his pain of separation from his mother. In 1940 he was officially introduced as the spiritual leader of Tibet. His new name was assumed and that is Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso. In November 1950, when he was only the age of 15, he was introduced as Tibet’s temporal leader in a ceremony in Lhasa. After that he spent most of the next decade trying to avoid a full-scale military takeover of Tibet by Chinese forces. The holiness of Dalai Lama began from his monastic education at the age of six. Five major and five minor subjects were included in the curriculum of study. Those subjects are Sanskrit,

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Groupon - Daily Deal Aggregator Business Model Essay Example for Free

Groupon Daily Deal Aggregator Business Model Essay Objectives 1. Choosing a company with an Innovative Business Model Groupon Groupon is a deal-of-the day website that features discounted gift certificates usable at local or national companies. It is based on the daily deal aggregator business model. Groupon was launched in November 2008, and the first market for Groupon was Chicago, followed soon thereafter by Boston, New York City, and Toronto. By October 2010, Groupon served more than 150 markets in North America and 100 markets in Europe, Asia and South America and had 35 million registered users. In addition to generation of revenues, offering daily deals on Groupon has proved to be beneficial for various businesses. Start-ups have gained market share by offering lucrative deals for customers on Groupon and attracting them to their businesses. Once these businesses gain their initial share of customers, it becomes easier for them to retain these customers and even attract new ones, with the help of providing quality product or service. Various businesses, domestic and international, have gained by often providing daily deals on Groupon. 2. Analysing the Business Model and Identifying the Innovation The Groupon Innovation Groupon is a daily deal website considered to be one of the top ten innovative Business Models with a huge user base of 83 million across 43 countries. Groupon sells coupons in a very unique way; As mentioned above, Groupon follows Daily deal Aggregator Business Model which enables groups of people who want to purchase a particular product or service to sign up and then seek a volume discount from vendors. These discounts are in the form of daily deals/coupons for products or services. Daily Deal websites typically  offer a single product or service a day for a discount and these deals become valid only after a pre-specified number of people sign up to avail this deal. When the deal expires, or sells out, the offer is gone. Daily Deal websites typically offer one product or service a day for a discount. This Business Model reduces risk for retailers who post the offers; They can treat the coupons as quantity discounts as well as sales promotion tools. Groupon makes money by keeping approximately half the money the customer pays for the coupon. For example, an $80 haircut could be purchased by the consumer for $40 through Groupon, and then Groupon and the retailer would split the $40. That is, the parlour gives a haircut valued at $80 and gets approximately $20 from Groupon for it (under a 50%/50% split). The consumer gets the haircut, in this example, from the parlour for which they have paid $40 to Groupon. Unlike classified advertising, the merchant does not pay any upfront cost to participate: Groupon collects personal information from willing customers and then contacts only those customers, primarily by daily email, who may possibly be interested in a particular product or service. Groupon breaks into new markets by identifying successful local businesses, first by sending in an advance a number of employees to gain data about the local market; when it finds a business with outstanding reviews, salespeople approach it and explain the model, and use social marketing sites such as Facebook to further promote the idea. Groupon’s biggest strength is its user base which has grown due to its First Mover Advantage and affordable deals. The question, however, at present is the sustainability of the business model. According to the CEO, Andrew Mason, Groupon is trying to â€Å"fundamentally change the way that people buy from local businesses in the same way that e-commerce changed the way that people buy products.† 3. Analysing the Market Scenerio Present Scenerio in the market The emergence of dozens of competitors to Groupon, with customers frequently playing one site off against another, diminishes the competitive differentiation between them. In addition, merchants whose goods and services are featured on the sites are now being courted by more players, making them less loyal and less likely to be prepared to pay rich premiums for the sites directing new customers to their store locations. Further, the benefits to both customers and merchants are likely to drop as the market is flooded with same kind of offers. Moreover, some of its big rivals are backed by some major funding and engineering resources. LivingSocial is backed by Amazon it grew gross revenues 32 percent from August to September, bolstered by a blockbuster Whole Foods deal. Smaller players like TravelZoo and Bloomspothave their own advantages; They tend to be more focused on a particular niche. Apart from competition, there are also the issues of taxation; States including New York have decided merchants should collect sales taxes on the full face value of items purchased, not the price that consumers actually pay.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Culture and Expectations: Building Customers

Culture and Expectations: Building Customers Culture is one of the concept that occur from many different factors also most of authors from many different fields are examine culture and cultural factors for making analysis of human characteristics. I am going to analyse cultural factors deeply for understanding international marketing better. Also I will focus on how Cultural factors affects to marketing policies and I will try to explain each factors with some relevant examples. Cultural differences how can affect social expenditures at abroad and how can international marketers market their goods and services at abroad perfectly Culture plays a vital role in expectations building of customers and helps in determining the alleged way of customers regarding service delivery (Tansik and Chase 1988, cited by Mattila 1999, p.02) It is very hard to defined culture but simply culture shows all people of one nation or societies Identities. Everybody in those societies is give similar reactions for similar situations. Also different group of society gives different reaction for the same situation. If I want to explain culture in one sentence that culture is similarities of differentiations. People who live in America can laugh to Japanese people because of their life style or Japanese people can think the same think for Americans and may be they can say how crazy they are because of their cultures or life styles. For example American people like big, smart, fast and comfortable cars but Japanese people do not drive such noisy, fast, big and bombastic cars Culture is so important for marketers and especially for international marketers. The way for success at international marketing goes from culture. Good marketers try to understand people who live at their target market and after they introduce their goods and services with the reasonable best methods. Otherwise no body expect from Japanese marketers to sell their cars to American people with successfully. I am saying successfully because those little people did it. They are one of the best car sellers in the world with their own brand. That brand name is Toyota. Maybe 50 years ago any one from America thought to use Japanese cars or even they could not think if Japans can manufacture cars. I am going to give detailed information about Toyota and their marketing strategies at the next part of my assignment but before I want to focus on Culture and factors of cultures for understanding differentiations among the nations. I believe that work will be very useful for new international ma rketers International Marketing Marketing the goods and services to other nations named as international marketing. World is globalising and competition among the firms are growing. Most of companies which win this competition are becoming Global Firms and they are serving everywhere in the earth and those companies are marketing their goods and services like in their home country. What are the difficulties of international marketing? I will try to answer this question in this section of my assignment. According to Usiner (1996) the main difficulty of international marketing must be Cultural differences. If Usiner and other authors are right at their this view I should looked what kind of elements are shapes humans life Elements of Culture Language Religion Values and Attitudes Manners and Customs Material Elements Aesthetics Education Social Institutions Language: Language is the key element for entering the new market or selling new products in the target markets because it is very important to introduce the goods and services at in a foreign country. Language not only meaning a verbal language for an international marketer also language contains everything about those people who using it. Toyota is a Japanese brand but in the earth everybody knows Toyota is the biggest Automotive Brand and people from Africa to America trust this name. Mainly Japanese people speak Japanese but wherever if Toyota manufacture or market their products, They start to communicate with those people, We are understanding this from Toyota`s corona models history at America. Toyota corona was totally responding American society`s requirements. Religion: Religions are affects humans life styles and their culture. Religion can be used as a gun for marketers but I do not recommend it. A good marketer should respect religions if they want to be successful and also they should be careful about using harmful or racist approaches for religions and their followers at every time. When I looked at the graphics below it can be helpful to understand importance of respect religions at all time. Christianity: 2.1 billion Islam: 1.5 billion Secular/Nonreligious/Agnostic/Atheist:1.1 Million Hinduism: 900 million Chinese traditional religion: 394 million Buddhism: 376 million May be it can be hard to understand importance of marketing strategies according to member of religions but when we looked at food and beverage sector it going to be easy to realize. Moslem nations do not purchase haram (forbidden by Islam) foods and beverages, Hindu nations generally become vegetarian because of their religion. Such a important differences have have to be considered by international marketers. Also I can imagine If Toyota made any advertisements which may annoy one of the members of religion; those people would definitely protest the Toyota forever. Values and Attitudes Values are the basic notion/convictions of what is right and wrong and values are fairly stable over time. Notional disagreement is a gap between two values or among values and behaviors. Attitudes are feelings and tempers that affect behavior and may change frequently. According to definition values and attitudes are just a concept and those are about personal feelings and treatments. And generally people meet under the similar feelings and treatments. Because of this meeting Values and attitudes are very important at shaping the cultural differences among the nations. The most difficult thing in the earth might be changing ideas. No one can accept cross ideas easily. Because of this situation international marketers have to debate values and attitudes while they are marketing their products and services at abroad. According to Toyota Production System (TPS): the lean management: the key managerial values and attitudes needed to sustain continuous improvement in the long run. The core management principles are articulated around the twin pillars of Continuous Improvement and Respect for People. Manners and Customs: The biggest differentiation of manners from religions that Manners are formed by people but religions ruled by God. Manners can change by the time but both religions and manners ask people to be good. Manners are accepted by one group of people. If in that group somebody does not follow the rules of manners others can think about him or her bad thinks but nobody judge them. Customs are only treatments that become habitats with repeating actions by the time. Customs can be good customs or bad customs but manners always ask for to be good. Manners and customs are used together because these words are shapes culture of small nations and big countries Material Elements: When you analyze a countrys material culture you need to look at two things: (1) its level of technological ability and (2) its economics, or how people use their abilities and the benefits achieved. Material elements are about if the target country is using enough technology or not. Because power of technology gives people some extra abilities and this abilities helps to change life styles. International marketers have to understand their target markets` technological superiorities because this power can affect marketing strategies. Aesthetics: Aesthetics is a combination of feeling about beauty. But beauty is not the same for everybody. Aesthetics is generalisation of beauty. For example looking, smelling, tasting, touching and feeling are sensible with sense organs. And sense organs give good or bad reactions according to feelings and aesthetics occur with those good feelings. If Group of people feel good things and give similar reaction for the same situations that affects those people`s cultures at the end. Importance of aesthetics for marketers, they have to market their goods and services to their target markets according to those nations beauty and aesthetics comprehensions Education: The aim of education should be to teach us rather how to think, than what to think-rather to improve our minds, so as to enable us to think for ourselves, than to load the memory with the thoughts of other men. Bill Beattie Education is very important for international marketer. Because advertisement and such informative works for success in the business are have to prepare according to education level of target markets. People have to understand easily what we are serving or who we are with simple words or figures. At the low educational level countries visual advertisements must prefer rather than destined advertisements Social Institutions: A complex of positions, roles, norms and values lodged in particular types of social structures and organizing relatively stable patterns of human activity with respect to fundamental problems in producing life-sustaining resources, in reproducing individuals, and in sustaining viable societal structures within a given environment. (Turner 1997: 6) Social intuitions are has some structural differences from country to country for example, education systems do not have to be the same at every country or police and military can have different roles for make lives easier. Professional International marketers can easily aware of differentiations among the nations and so they can have advantages on marketing their goods and services at abroad. Part B Introduction At the second part of this assignment I am going to analyze Cateora and Ghauri`s statement about importance of experience at marketing. Why experienced marketers can be more successful then inexperienced marketers on marketing their goods or services? Cateora and Ghauri believe that most of inexperienced marketers fall in mistakes at aspect of cultures. I have already survey elements of culture at first part of this assignment Language, Religion, Values and Attitudes, Manners and Customs, Material Elements, Aesthetics, Education and Social Institutions are all defined at Part A. These elements are the central core part of cultures and culture are shaped by those elements. Every nation has their own cultural aspects but international marketer have to look those aspects very carefully. Sometimes those cultural elements can seen similar at different nations and because of those similarities international marketers can fail at those failure. Author is describing that failure as illusion. If I give an example, language: Language is a subject with language people can communicate but it does not mean learning foreign languages for understanding people better. Communication mean is not only talking and making agreements for international marketers also a good international marketer should understand him or her target market correctly. For e xample English is a Language Americans, Australians, British and many other nations speak English and most of international agreements made in English language. But many time Americans get difficulties to understand British. Similar situations occur at some Turkish speaker countries as well. For example Turkey Turks many times have understanding difficulties to Azeri or Cyprus Turks` speaking languages in fact all Turks speak Turkish Languages. Experience is jump to business in this kind of cases and those people short the understanding problems easily because they know from their experience that when Cyprus Turk says are you complete Experienced people who know Cyprus culture understand what is the meaning of are you complete and says I am fine thank you. But inexperienced people about Cyprus culture only struggle with the meanings of the words Today Toyota is one of the biggest worldwide company and Toyota marketers are marketing their product all over the world as they learn from Edward Demings at the end of World War 2. Yes you heard the real American name in Japan. Edward Demings was one of the most important managers of Toyota. He introduce to America to Toyota cars as better cars then original American cars. He was an American and he was knowing very well what Americans like or hate. And he had checked detailed at American market for improve Toyota`s specialties. This principle of learning very well of the target markets` demand and needs always became Toyota`s business strategy and so after all this studied Toyota call this studies as kaizen or continuous development all the world accepted Toyota as a world brand. Toyota always tries to learn and improve them from production to marketing process at everywhere. Conclusion From part A I have analyze culture and elements of culture for international marketing and I saw that differences growths competitions among nations or marketers. Today our world is globalizing and cultural differences are become determinant factors at business life. Language, Religion, Values and Attitudes, Manners and Customs, Material Elements, Aesthetics, Education and Social Institutions are some of most relevant factors in the earth and those elements shapes culture. International marketers should be careful when they are preparing marketing policies for different cultures From part B I have analyze importance of experience factor at marketing. Cultural factors very important at marketing and marketers should analyze cultural differences perfectly but how much if a marketer from different culture think he or she knows everything about his or her target market, he or she can fail at very simple mistakes. But to be experienced is always gives better change to be successful at marketing. Also I have learnt in the second part about key man of Toyota who made Toyota a world brand. Every marketer should respect that man and at least have to read his business strategies if they want to gain experiences quick

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Anorexia Nervosa :: essays research papers fc

Could you imagine being so afraid of food and the possibility of gaining weight that you would actually starve yourself? Food and eating are pleasures of everyday life we take for granted. Having the life of an Anorexic person fills you with the constant fear of one thing†¦.becoming fat.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Eating disorders such as Anorexia Nervosa are slowly gripping a part of the female adolescent to young adult population. Although, Anorexia Nervosa has only been public since the 1970’s, records of the disorder go back as far as 1689. Thomas Morton, an English physician, studied subjects with a disorder he called the â€Å"wasting† disease. He had two cases, which were very similar. One was an eight-teen yr. old girl and the other was a six-teen yr. old boy. Both subjects had similar symptoms. They both had a strong lack of appetite, sensitivity to coldness, and extreme sadness. The girl eventually starved herself to death; however, the boy did recover (Gordon 12-13).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Through out the centuries there have been many cases of girls â€Å"fasting†, and not due to religious purposes. In the 1870’s the disorder became a topic of more medical concern. It happened around the time two doctors, Sir William Gull and Charles Lasegue, simultaneously published papers on a number of cases dealing with self-starvation (Alexander-Mott &Lumsden 101-102). Gull actually came up with the term Anorexia Nervosa, because he believed it was a nervous disease. Both doctors note four distinctive characteristics with each case. All of the patients experienced high levels of hyperactivity. Each of the patients denied the existence of the disorder. Also, they each had peculiar attitudes toward food. Finally, each patient had pathological family interactions (Gordon 13).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Years following Gull and Lasegue’s discoveries, research continued on this peculiar disorder. Unfortunately for a long period of time Anorexia was confused with Simmond’s Disease, an endocrine disorder. So, for awhile Anorexia sufferers were being prescribed the wrong medications, such as thyroid extracts (Gordon 14). Finally, in the 1930’s the two disorders were distinguished between.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In 1973 a woman who trained in psychoanalysis, named Bruch, wrote a book on eating disorders. Bruch had previously worked for three decades with Anorexic and obese patients. She observed that Anorexics had three main characteristics. The first was a distorted body image, a misperception of fat. The second was the inability to identify needs, particularly hunger, but also the whole range of emotions. The last characteristic was a feeling of ineffectiveness, lack of self-worth (Matthews 30).

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Digital Art and its Market :: Technology Essays

Digital Art and its Market missing works cited The future of digital art promises many new alternatives to traditional artwork. Digital art offers a whole new perspective on the way people see and perceive art. For this reason, people across the globe have varying opinions on whether or not digital art should be accepted into society. This technological based art allows people to express themselves through art created using a computer. People who can’t draw traditionally can turn to digital art as a way to convey their inner thoughts and feelings. Likewise, more advanced artist can sell their extremely realistic pieces from hundreds to thousands of dollars each. New and exciting advances are coming about when it comes to displaying digital art, and this may strengthen its market it the long run. Digital art although extremely controversial, provides a new way of expression and allows for a whole new market to evolve. The value of digital art pieces is steadily increasing throughout the years. In 1998 the value of the digital fine art prints reached over 170 million dollars, and by 2003 the number was predicting to be at 249 million (Williams). This figure is only based on work produced by artists, and there are many at amateur levels creating art at home. This is a huge amount of money that is being invested into this new form of art. Digital art is still at its early years, and like a young child it still will mature more and more. Digital Art still remains experimental too in many ways. It’s taught in art schools, but no one really has a firm grasp of what it actually is (qtd. in Jesdanun). As long as technology plays a stronger role in our lives, artists will continue to use it to help them come up with new ideas for their artwork. Golan Levin, a man who works artistically with computers often says that â€Å"The computer is just as much a medium of art,† contrary to those who believe the computer is not. It may not be panting, carving or sculpting the old-fashioned way, but it takes just as much knowledge and intelligence to be able to work with the computer to create a finished product. Artists have been exploring digital art since the 1960s, but only in the past few years has it become widely practical because of better technology and prices (qtd.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Government and Politics - No Peace for the Middle East Essay -- Argume

No Peace for the Middle East Since its inception the State of Israel has been at war with the Arab countries surrounding it. Dating back to biblical times when the Israelites left Egypt after two hundred years of bondage there, they began forty years of wandering the desert in which they encountered many enemy tribes such as their sworn enemies, the Amalekites. Thousands of years later, the Arabs and Israelis are still fighting. The State of Israel began with the War for Israeli Independence in 1948. Israel has kept on fighting ever since. Over the lengthy span of time in which Israel has been at war with the Arabs, the people of Israel and the Palestinians have developed a deeply rooted hatred for one another. Terrorism has been another factor which has contributed to this loathing. On top of all this, is the cultural and religious clash which the two populations experience. However, in the past twenty years, Israel and the Arab countries surrounding it have begun taking the first few strides toward peace. The meeting of Menachim Begin and Anwar el-Sadat created the peace treaty between Israel and Egypt in 1979. This marked the beginning of the never ending struggle for peace. Despite the overwhelming political endeavor for peace, the people of Israel will never fully achieve a peaceful coexistence with their Arab neighbors, due to the dark history between the nations and the years of hatred which have transpired. In recent years, the Middle East has made serious advances toward peace. Menachim Begin and Anwar el- Sadat formulated and signed the historic peace treaty between Israel and Egypt in 1979. It took immense preparation and the active participation of many of both countries?highest ranking officials and leaders to ... ...t with it many positive changes in the Middle East. In spite of what appear to be insurmountable obstacles, one can only hope for continued progress in the direction of peace and the best possible future for the Middle East. Works Cited 1. Weizman, Ezer. The Battle for Peace. New York: Bantam Books, 1981. 2. Gervasi, Frank. Thunder Over the Mediterranean. New York: David McKay Co., Inc.,1975. 3. Lustick, Ian. Arabs in the Jewish State. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1980. 4. â€Å"Middle East.?Microsoft Encarta. 1995 ed. 5. Friedman, Thomas L. From Beirut to Jerusalem. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1989. 6. Chafetz, Ze’ev. Double Vision. New York: William Morrow and Company Inc.,1985. 7. â€Å"Kol Israel News Broadcast.? (January 17,1997) 8. â€Å"Daily News from Israel? (January 21,1997)

Monday, September 16, 2019

Brief description of the context and of the decision which has to be made Essay

An internal analysis (Strengths & Weaknesses of Illy & Espressamente) †¢An external analysis (Opportunities & Threats from the Global Coffee Market). †¢A strategic SWOT analysis, crossing internal & external analyses, in order to determine strategic directions for the internationalization of Espressamente. 3. Analysis of each of the 7 foreign markets considered for expansion: †¢Cultural distance with Italy †¢Market attractiveness (based on most important variables) 4. Analysis of Illy’s competitive strength on each of the 7 foreign markets 5. Recommendation as to the market(s) to prioritize 6. Recommendation of market-entry strategy(ies) for the selected markets. Questions 1. Brief description of the context and of the decision which has to be made. 2. SWOT analysis, including: †¢An internal analysis (Strengths & Weaknesses of Illy & Espressamente) †¢An external analysis (Opportunities & Threats from the Global Coffee Market). †¢A strategic SWOT analysis, crossing internal & external analyses, in order to determine strategic directions for the internationalization of Espressamente. 3. Analysis of each of the 7 foreign markets considered for expansion: †¢Cultural distance with Italy            

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Small-Scale Mining in the Philippines: a Case Study

SMALL-SCALE MINING (Lives at risk in the Philippine Gold Mines) INTRODUCTION Gold is the number one mineral produced by the Philippines in value terms. Although total local production was low relative to world production, it ranked 2nd to Africa in gold production per unit land area in 1988 and ranked 29th as top gold producer in 2002(Israel and Asirot 2002). In the year 2002–2007, the Philippines’ gold production increased by 8. 2%. This contributed an average of 2% gross domestic product (GDP) in the same period. The country was ranked 18th in the GFMs Gold Survey list of top 20 Gold Producing countries in 2007 (Teves 2008).The 2008 and 2009 data of the Philippine mining Almanac showed a significant amount of gold production by the small-scale gold mining operations in the country. Reports revealed that the small-scale mining sector contributed almost 80% of the total gold production. This is equivalent to a Php32B contribution to GDP in 2007 (ibid). The following 200 8 and 2009 data are based on the amount of gold sold to the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP). The highest amount of gold produced in the country at 28,198 kg and 26,112 kg, respectively were generated by the small-scale mines (fig. ). Local governments hosting the sector acknowledged the industry’s economic contribution, as it somehow provides livelihood to the local community and unemployed migrants. There are some reports on the adverse impact of small-scale mining on the environment, health and human lives. However, research studies documenting the impact of small-scale mining industry on the local economy, environment, human health, public safety and the socio-cultural condition of indigenous peoples (IPs) in the mining areas, are limited.The socio-political dynamics between small- scale miners and other stakeholders like community and civil society organizations, regulatory bodies, the government and large-scale mining companies remains undocumented. There were concerns regarding the implication of some regulatory policies on the small-scale mining industry as the application of such will prevent some IP communities from accessing their properties. Furthermore, questions arise on the actual impact of the industry on poverty alleviation. Some theory suggests that the small-scale industry may have aggravated poverty because of the weak regulation of the industry.While economically significant, small-scale gold mining has been the target of strong opposition in recent years mainly because of its various adverse environmental and social side effects. Foremost of these is mercury pollution. BACKGROUND Small-scale mining (SSM) refers to mining by individuals, groups, families or cooperatives with minimal or no mechanization, often in the informal (illegal) sector of the market. Small-scale mining relies heavily on manual labor and does not use explosives. The scope of the area allowed for small-scale mining should not exceed 20 hectares per contractor ( 1991).In the Philippines, small-scale mining operators include subsistence mining (estimated 75%), individual or family businesses (estimated 15%) and established commercial mining firms (estimated 10%) (Hentschel 2002). According to the different interviews and focus group discussions, the operation of small-scale gold mining in the country can be traced as early as 10th century or even since time immemorial in the north and as late as 1990s in south Cotabato. Furthermore, numerous foreign studies already investigated the problem of mercury pollution due to small-scale gold mining, concentrating on the experience in Brazil.High levels of mercury concentrations were found in the hair and blood samples ofthe miners and other affected people as well as in fish, soil sediments and forest and river ecosystems in small-scale gold mining areas of the Amazon region. In the Philippines, several studies also looked into mercury pollution based on the experience in Diwalwal, the largest small -scale mining site in the country (e. g. Mahinay et al. 1998, Bacani et al. 1996, Breward 1996, Balce and Cabalda 1992, Williams et al. 1995). High levels of mercury pollution were found on-site as well as in the affected places downstream.Williams et al. specifically asserted that there were already considerable mercury loads in some sectors of the Agusan River, where Diwalwal drains into, and that the water samples from the mining site itself showed higher concentrations than those in the other gold rush areas in the world. Although studies on the impact of mercury pollution due to small-scale mining were already numerous, they were generally technical in nature. Few works touched on the economic aspects of the problem and did so only in a superficial and summary manner.So far, there is no available study that conducted an economic analysis in a more detailed and quantitative way in the Philippines or elsewhere. Small-scale mining is not an important public revenue-generating sect or for the government at present because of its largely illegal nature. Viewed in a more positive light, the activity should become a solid tax base when fully licensed, given the large number of people and economic activities dependent on it. LAWS AND INSTITUTIONS IN SMALL-SCALE MINING Laws The earliest mining law in the Philippines was Commonwealth Act 137 promulgated in 1936.This legislation had no separate provision for small-scale mining since the activity was not practiced extensively then. It took effect for many years until the martial law era when it was amended through Presidential Decree (PD) 463, otherwise known as the Mineral Resources Decree of 1974. Like its predecessor, this legislation did not have separate provisions for small-scale mining. In 1984, PD 899 established small-scale mining as a new dimension in mineral development and defined it as a specific activity. Succeeding orders based on this law stipulated, among others, the rules and regulations governing he granting of small-scale mining permits and ordered the selling of the gold recovered through the activity only to the Central Bank and its authorized representatives. During the term of President Corazon C. Aquino, the Congress of the Philippines passed Republic Act (RA) 7076 or the People’s Small-Scale Mining Act of 1991. Among its important provisions, this law established the People’s Small-Scale Mining Program and described the small-scale mining areas that can be opened under it. During the administration of President Fidel V. Ramos, RA 7942 or the Philippine Mining Act of 1995 was passed.This law stipulated that small-scale mining will continue to be governed by the provisions of RA 7076 and PD 1899 and their implementing rules and regulations. Institutions Prior to PD 899 in 1984, no government agency managed small- scale mining since it was not described as a formal economic sector yet. Those engaged in the activity did so without any government interference. With the passing of the law, the MGB was given the authority to administer small-scale mining. SMALL-SCALE GOLD MINING PROCESS The initial process of gold mining starts with prospecting.In prospecting, the ore quality, â€Å"vein† geologic formation and ore assaying are examined. An area with a good ore quality is prepared for tunneling. In tunneling, holing and drilling are done using pick and shovel. Others who can afford it use electric hammer jacks. These initial stages of prospecting and tunneling are the expertise of the abanteros, whose knowledge of gold mining has been shaped by years of experience. In Benguet, the Ibaloi and Kankanaey miners are known Abanteros, having inherited their skills from their ancestors. Some migrant miners from the lowlands have also learned the skill.In South cotabato, the abanteros came from diwalwal, monkayo, compostela Valley. Mine workers are hired to work on the tunnels. These are the ore and muck ore packers, Atraseros (ore exporters from inside the tunnel), ore washers (usually women), habal-habal drivers, horses and horse owners/guides as transporters of ores from the tunnel site to the processing area. Extracted ores are processed in the ball or rod mill plant for mercury amalgamation. The tailings that have accumulated for several weeks will be subjected to further cyanidation in the carbonin-Pulp (ciP) Plant.The mercury amalgamation process will recover 40% of gold from the ores while the cyanidation will recover up to 60% of gold, both refined right after the smelting and/or firing process. Gold produced in button shapes will be sold to licensed gold buyers. A detailed process flow is presented in the following diagram (fig. 2). POWER RELATIONS IN THE SECTOR The mine is viewed as a resource, with various interested key players aiming to access it and benefit from it. There are several key players in the small-scale mining industry. With respect to the mining operation, the key players include: land owners †¢ tunnel owners (individuals or cooperative and association) †¢ financiers (foreigners, migrants or local, IPs and non-IPs) †¢ the abanteros or skilled miners †¢ the mine workers which include the atraseros (ore packers and haulers) †¢ ore and sack washers (usually women and young workers) †¢ ore transporters (habal-habal drivers, horse owners or guides) †¢ processing plant workers †¢ gold traders On the trading side, gold produced by the small-mining operations are purchased by the licensed gold buyers and subsequently sold to the Bangko Sental ng Pilipinas (BSP).Non-licensed traders are also present in the areas and are commonly labeled as the â€Å"black market. † Black market traders would usually visit the community or are based in the community. Purchase price is lower in the black market but the miners save the cost of transportation in going to the city. Because of the savings in transportation, miners are encouraged to sell t heir gold to the black market. Regulation and enforcement of policies related to small-scale mining industry are under the Provincial Mining Regulatory Board (PMRB).This is composed of the DENR- Mines and Geo Sciences Bureau (MBG) as the chairman and the Provincial Governor as the vice-chairman. The other members of the board are representatives from the SSM Association, large-Scale mining Operators and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs). In Benguet and South Cotabato, a number of local officials are involved in mining either as tunnel owner, land owner or financier. This presents a conflict of interest between regulating small-scale mining and operating mines. The Abanteros are usually the ones with knowledge, skill and capability to engage financiers because of their prospecting and tunnelling skills.Financiers initially provide funds for the operation of the mine but they are expected to engage with venture capitalists to expand the operation in the site. Venture capitalists can be foreign investors or locals who have the capital to infuse into the industry. Land owners, on the other hand, have the priority access over the resource, being the rightful claimants of the area. However, the land owners usually do not have the skills and the financial capacity to start a mine. Abanteros and financiers can negotiate with land owners to tap the resource.In some cases, the land owners can be financiers and tunnel owners, too. Some abanteros who have been successful in mining now act as financiers and tunnel owners; some have even managed to operate processing plants. it is common to see big-time tunnel owners and financiers also operate the processing plants in the area. Normally, all plant owners have tunnels but not all tunnel owners have processing plants. Owners of small mining operations with no processing plants pay for the use of existing processing plants, depending on the number of bags processed.MERCURY POLLUTION DUE TO SMALL-SCALE MINING The Amalgamatio n Method of Gold Processing Mercury gets into the picture in small-scale mining because it is the main agent used to separate the gold from the mined ore employing the amalgamation method of processing. Amalgamation is popular in small-scale mining areas since it is simple to apply and requires relatively low investment. The Carbon-in-Pulp (CIP) Method of Gold Processing Gold can also be processed using the CIP method. This method can process the slurry produced by amalgamation or the milled ore coming from the rod and ball mills directly.However, CIP is not used widely in small-scale mining because of the high cost of investment that it requires. The Health Impact of Mercury Pollution There are different ways by which the amalgamation method of gold processing causes mercury pollution. One way is when mercury is unintentionally spilled into the ground because of careless handling. Another is when mercury is discharged together with other wastes into inadequate tailings ponds, or wo rse, thrown away directly into rivers and waterways. Still another way is when vaporized mercury is released into the atmosphere when the amalgam is blowtorched and refined.Once in the environment, mercury is dangerous because of its potential adverse impact on human health. In the case of water pollution, part of the mercury discharged into rivers and waterways is transformed into methylmercury eaten by aquatic species and in turn consumed by people. Once inside the human body, mercury could trigger neurological disturbances as well as problems in the reproductive and other body organs (Viega 1997a). The likely symptoms are visual constriction, numbness of the extremities and the impairment of hearing, speech and gait.The release of mercury into the atmosphere during blowtorching also puts to risk human health. The activity is usually done in open containers and closed houses so the inhalation of vaporized mercury is highly possible among the people conducting it and those close by . The long-term effect of this type of exposure is the impairment of the metabolism of the human nervous system that eventually leads to certain neurobehavioral disturbances. The visible symptoms are the exhibition of exaggerated emotional responses and muscular tremors and gingivitis. PROBLEMS IN SMALL SCALE GOLD MININGPollution due to Aside from mercury pollution, small-scale mining is beset with other problems that are also important and needing serious attention. These are enumerated and discussed in brief below. Environmental Problems Cyanide Pollution Pollution due to toxic and hazardous substances other than mercury that are used in small-scale mining can also endanger human health. The highly poisonous sodium cyanide used in CIP processing, in particular, could easily kill people and fish when discharged in rivers and waterways. Despite its dangers, cyanide pollution from CIP processing has not been investigated at all in any literature.A probable reason is that, unlike merc ury, cyanide is biodegradable and eventually decomposes into carbon dioxide and ammonia (Yannopoulos 1991) making it potentially less harmful over time. Deforestation Deforestation is a natural consequence of small-scale mining since many sites are located in forested uplands. The influx of miners and their families into mining areas results to the clearing of forests for habitation space and other human activities that causes deforestation. No study investigated in detail the impact of small-scale mining on deforestation.One likely reason is that areas covered by small-scale mining are actually very small when compared to those used for other economic activities like forestry and logging (Veiga 1997b). Soil Erosion Soil erosion is another natural consequence of small-scale mining because of the mountainous and sloping topography of many mining sites. Miners level sloping land and scrape topsoil to make surface foundations stable for houses and other structures. They develop pathway s and roads across highly sloping and erosive areas and cover fertile soil with waste materials dug out of underground tunnels.There are also no studies that probed in detail the soil erosion effects of small-scale mining although this environmental impact is potentially large. Biodiversity Loss The loss of biodiversity due to small-scale mining is a direct after-math of deforestation and water pollution. Trees are cut leading to receding jungles that are natural habitats of terrestrial flora and fauna. Water pollution damages the rivers and waterways that are homes of aquatic plants and animals. As in the case of deforestation and soil erosion, there are no studies that investigated this issue.Siltation and Sedimentation of Downstream Water Bodies Siltation and sedimentation of downstream waterways occur when mine tailings and eroded soil finds their way into water bodies. They decrease the viability of affected waterways as fishing grounds, recreation sites and port areas. They al so contribute to flooding and hamper the efficient functioning of dams and irrigation networks. Like the other environmental problems, siltation and sedimentation due to small-scale mining have received scant research attention. Legal and Institutional ProblemsMining Rights Conflicts between Small-Scale Miners and Large-Scale Mining Firms Many small-scale mining areas are situated within the mining claims of large-scale companies. This situation has created conflicts between the large-scale miners on one side and the small-scale miners on the other side and prevented the smooth operations of the mining industry in general. Presence of Medium-Scale Mining Operations in Small-Scale Mining Sites Dominant presences of medium-scale mining operations have been competing for domination resulting in the significant loss of lives and deterioration of peace and order.Social Problems Worsening Social Instability in Small-Scale Mining Areas Many small-scale miners are migrants in the areas wher e they mine. Hence, they find it difficult to adapt socially with the local population. To some extent, vices like alcoholism and gambling also exist in these areas that add to the conflict. Limited Basic Services in Small-Scale Mining Areas The supply of basic services such as those relating to health and transportation and others has been limited in small-scale mining communities. This has greatly exacerbated the poor conditions and social problems within these areas.Exploitation of Women and Children in Small-Scale Mining Women and children are engaged in the gathering of ores inside tunnels and even in processing which are activities suited only for grown- up men. Although small-scale miners deny this, key informants and ocular inspection in the two case study areas confirmed this problem ECONOMIC PROBLEMS Low Price for Gold Received by Small-Scale Miners Small-scale miners sell their gold to the tunnel owners, processors or to other traders instead of directly to the Central Ba nk or its representatives.Key informants reported that underpricing of gold often occurs in these marketing channels and this contributes to the poor economic conditions the miners are in. Loss of Gold by the Country Due to Illegal Gold Trading Because small-scale miners sell their gold not to the Central Bank but to various buyers, the national government loses great amounts of gold to the detriment of the entire economy. Lack of Formal Sources of Credit for Small-Scale Miners There is lack of formal sources of credit for small-scale miners in times of need or for starting an alternative occupation.This forces them to borrow from the tunnel owners, processors, traders and unscrupulous money lenders who exploit them by charging higher interest rates or buying their gold at low prices. Lack of Alternative or Supplemental Employment Opportunities for Small-Scale Miners Small-scale mining is the only employment opportunity for many miners. Few have an alternative occupation like farmin g. Also many miners have been in mining for an average of 10 long years, which further confirms their lack of alternative employment. Technology-related ProblemsInefficient Technologies Used in Small-Scale Mining The technology used in ore extraction and gold processing results to poor ore output and gold recovery in small-scale mining. The poor ore and gold output performance has been confirmed by national and local key informants. Unsafe Technologies Used in Small-Scale Mining The unsafe techniques and procedures used in the mining of ore, such as poor timbering support, poor ventilation, and other practices have resulted to cave-ins and other accidents that disabled or took away the lives of miners.CONCLUSIONS The conflicting policies on resource extraction/development versus environmental protection and weak governance as indicated by the absence of local regulations threaten the environment and public health. The negative impacts of small-scale mining activities have been obser ved in many of these communities. Poverty and the attractiveness of immediate money from the mining industry attract children and women to work in the mines. These expose women and children to hazardous chemicals and unsafe mining practice.Small-scale mining contributes to the local economy through job creation, increasing economic activity in the communities. There is a need for the development of sound policies and laws to balance economic development and environmental sustainability. Strong enforcement of laws is a must. However, the conflict of interest of local officials who are in charge of regulation and governing the community and who also have interests in mining operations poses a threat in the strict enforcement of laws in the communities. RECOMMENDATIONS Mercury PollutionA review will show that the existing laws and regulations related to mercury pollution in small-scale gold mining are fairly adequate but monitoring and enforcement is weak. To improve on monitoring and enforcement, the following actions are suggested: * Licensing by the LGUs of all small-scale gold mining and processing operations within their jurisdiction and imposition of membership in a cooperative as a licensing requirement. * Earmarking of the licensing proceeds for the establishment and operation of a small-scale mining monitoring and enforcement unit within the management framework of LGUs. Development of an effective internal system within cooperatives that will force the proper use of hand gloves, mercury retorts and tailings ponds in small-scale mining. * Active involvement of NGOs and other responsible members of the local population in monitoring and enforcement by selectively deputizing them. * Strengthening of the Small-Scale Mining Section of the Environment and Safety Division of the MGB * Concerted effort by the national government, LGUs and NGOs to conduct education and awareness campaigns on mercury pollution. Involvement of international organizations in the fi ght against mercury pollution particularly in the promotion of technologies that can prevent or minimize it. * Serious consideration of the promotion of the CIP method of processing for small-scale mining Other Environmental Problems The national government should undertake detailed studies on cyanide pollution, deforestation, soil erosion, biodiversity loss and siltation and sedimentation in small-scale mining areas. Understanding these problems will go a long way toward finding their appropriate solutions.For the time being, the government must do better in monitoring and enforcing pertinent laws so that the problems are minimized. Legal and Institutional Problems The government should prioritize the early settlement of conflicting claims between small-scale miners and large-scale miners. One way of conducting this is to create dialogues between the two parties with the government as arbiter to find an amicable solution. Key informant from the large-scale firms in the two case stu dy areas explained that generally they are actually open to a negotiated settlement that can buy peace, goodwill and cooperation within their claims.Social Problems The social instability in small-scale mining is inherent in places where many of the population are poor and migrants. Improving the economic status of the people can help a lot to decrease the instability. This could happen when small-scale mining becomes a fully licensed activity and accepted as part of the economic mainstream. The provision of better basic social services will also help alleviate the deprived economic conditions and ease a lot of the social tensions. The exploitation of women and children is not confined to small-scale mining since it is prevalent, especially in the underground economy.The Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) should take a closer look at this problem and devise ways to minimize it. Again, improving the economic lot of the miners will help curve the exploitation of women and children. The conduct of effective programs which can provide guidance and counselling to mining families will also promote compliance by the miners to the laws against exploitation. Economic Problems The problem of low price received for the gold by the small-scale miners will be addressed to a large extent when they are organized into cooperatives.As a group, they can negotiate better in the market or pay for the transportation cost to sell gold in bulk to the Central Bank. The Central bank should consider putting up buying stations in the more important mining sites. This will not only help the miners economically but also lower significantly the amount of gold lost to the black market. Technology-Related Problems The problems of inefficient and unsafe technologies are part and parcel of small-scale mining as long as the miners remain poor.Economic conditions force them to use said technologies since they cannot afford to employ more sophisticated and costly ones. Sources: * Mercury Pollution Due to Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Philippines: An Economic Analysis http://dirp4. pids. gov. ph/ris/rps/pidsrp0202. pdf * A Background Study on the Small-scale Gold mining Operations in Benguet and South Cotabato and their Impact on the Economy, the Environment, and the Community http://bantaykita. ph/pdfs/Small%20Scale%20Mining. pdf * Inquirer News Online: http://newsinfo. inquirer. et/305986/small-scale-miners-sell-less-gold-due-to-bsps-7-tax http://newsinfo. inquirer. net/338689/13-men-in-quezon-clash-met-gold-miner http://newsinfo. inquirer. net/343869/gold-miner-says-he-didnt-betray-siman http://business. inquirer. net/106807/miner-sets-aside-digging-turns-to-planting-cacao http://newsinfo. inquirer. net/359389/sleepless-miner-recounts-seeing-friends-buried-alive-2 http://newsinfo. inquirer. net/362277/police-arrest-19-small-scale-miners http://newsinfo. inquirer. net/362687/execs-say-arrests-halted-mindoro-illegal-

Cis170 Essay

using System. Collections. Generic; using System. Linq; using System. Text; namespace Lab5A { class Program { static void Main(string[] args) { string[] playerName = new string[100]; int[] playerScore = new int[100]; int c = 0; c=InputData(ref playerName, ref playerScore); double avg= CalculateAverageScore(ref playerScore,c); Console. WriteLine(â€Å"Name Score†); DisplayPlayerData(ref playerName, ref playerScore, c); Console. WriteLine(); Console. WriteLine(â€Å"Average Score: † + avg + † â€Å"); Console. WriteLine(â€Å"Player’s Who Scored Below Average†); Console. WriteLine(â€Å"Name Score†); DisplayBelowAverage(avg, ref playerName, ref playerScore,c); } static int InputData(ref string[] player, ref int[] score) { int addName = 0,counter=0; do { Console. Write(â€Å"Enter Player’s Name (Q to quit): â€Å"); player[counter] = Console. ReadLine(); if (player[counter] == â€Å"q† || player[counter] == â€Å"Q†) { addName = 1; } else { Console. Write(â€Å"Enter score for {0}: â€Å", player[counter]); score[counter] = Convert. ToInt32(Console. ReadLine()); counter++; } } while (addName ! = 1); eturn counter; } static void DisplayPlayerData(ref string[] playerName, ref int[] playerScore,int counter) { for (int i = 0; i < counter; i++) { Console. WriteLine(â€Å"{0} {1}†, playerName[i], playerScore[i]); } } static double CalculateAverageScore(ref int[] playerScore,int counter) { int total = 0, avg = 0; for (int i = 0; i < counter; ++i) { total += Convert. ToInt32(playerScore[i]); } if (playerScore. Len gth > 0) avg = total / counter; return avg; } static void DisplayBelowAverage(double avg, ref string[] playerName, ref int[] playerScore,int counter) { or (int i = 0; i < counter; i++) { if (playerScore[i] < avg) { Console. WriteLine(â€Å"{0} {1}†, playerName[i], playerScore[i]); } } Console. ReadLine(); } } } Part B: using System; using System. Collections. Generic; using System. Linq; using System. Text; using System. Collections; namespace Week_5_iLab_Part_B { class Program { static void Main(string[] args) { string response = â€Å"y†; ArrayList LastNameAL = new ArrayList(); //Console. Write(â€Å"Enter a last name: â€Å"); //LastNameAL. Add(Console. ReadLine()); //Console. Write(â€Å"Keep Going? (Y/N) â€Å"); //response = Console. ReadLine(); while (response == â€Å"y†) { Console. Write(â€Å"Enter a last name: â€Å"); LastNameAL. Add(Console. ReadLine()); Console. Write(â€Å"Keep Going? (y/n) â€Å"); response = Console. ReadLine(); } Console. WriteLine(LastNameAL. Count + † last names entered. â€Å"); Console. WriteLine(â€Å"Last names in ascending order. â€Å"); LastNameAL. Sort(); foreach (string s in LastNameAL) { Console. WriteLine(s); } Console. WriteLine(â€Å"Last names in descending order. â€Å"); LastNameAL. Reverse(); foreach (string s in LastNameAL) { Console. WriteLine(s); } Console. ReadLine(); } } }

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Motivation for “A Rose for Emily” Essay

Motivation for â€Å"A Rose for Emily† It is in the human nature to want to have a sense of belonging and to be a part of something bigger, making it difficult to maintain moral decisions. The main character in William Faulkner’s â€Å"A Rose for Emily† faces moral challenges created by the pressure of wanting to conform to the town’s expectations while still trying to maintain a sense of independence, which ultimately leads up to the motivation to murder of Homer Barron. By holding high expectations, directly interfering in Emily’s life and relationship, and the constant widespread gossip from the Townspeople of Jefferson are the main motivation for the murder of Homer Barron. Emily Grierson, being the last Southern lady of the Antebellum South was held at a high expectation by the townspeople of Jefferson (Faulkner 160). As Thomas Dilworth points out, the townspeople had wanted to preserve the values of the old south through the embodiment of Emily (252).Faulkner even says that, â€Å"Alive, Miss Emily had been a tradition, a duty, and a care: a sort of hereditary obligation upon the town (156).† He is implying that the town’s people see that Emily has this hereditary duty to the town. These high expectations were carried over into Miss Emily’s personal sexual needs where she is expected to keep the appearance of a pure southern lady that can be compared to that of Eve from the Garden of Eden (Dilworth 253). Although Emily does rebel against the town for two years by dating a blue-collar construction worker and Yankee Homer Barron in attempt to not conform to the Jefferson townspeople’s expectations of a southern lady (Dilworth 251).The town’s hard to live up to standards are a part of the motivational reasoning that leads up to Emily murdering Homer and keeping his body in a necrophiliac relationship. Being raised by her father, Emily has always known about the expectations that were to be met, because of who her family is; however, this means that Emily’s personal life has always had interference. When her father was still alive Emily was not to be with any man because, â€Å"None of the young men were quite good enough for Miss Emily and such (Faulkner 158),† and when her father finally passed away the towns people began to take his place in interfering in Emily’s life. After Emily has been dating Homer for a little over a year the town begins to suspect the couple’s relationship to be scandalous, assuming adults in their thirties would engage in sexual acts, and leads the town to take actions into their own hands by sending the ntown’s Baptist priest to talk to Episcopal Emily about her actions. The talk with Emily was unsuccessful, causing the town to then call in Emily’s out of state cousins to watch over her. Emily in turn responds b y going out into town to buy men’s clothing and toiletries, which in turn leads the town and Emily’s cousins that she is married or is going to soon marry Homer (Faulkner 161-162). The direct interference in Emily’s life is the townspeople blatantly displaying that they no longer have a tolerance for her relationship with Homer, and show a blind eye when Emily purchases arsenic when out in town buying the men’s toiletries and clothing. Once the cousins believe that Emily is to marry Homer they leave, but that does not change the fact that the townspeople directly interfered with Emily’s personal affairs and still hold Emily in high standards. This means that even if Emily were to marry Homer the townspeople would still gossip on how Homer is a poor moral example for the Jefferson youth. Gossip was a constant reminder to Emily of the expectations required of her and the interference to remind her of this. Gossip is also consistently expressed throughout Faulkner’s story. A direct reference of gossip comes from Faulkner’s story, â€Å"When her father died, it got about that the house was all that was left to her† (Faulkner 159). â€Å"It got about† is an explicit reference to gossip. Also critic James M. Wallace implies that the gossip throughout the story told by the narrator’s had a wide knowledge of events that went on in the story (106). the narrator relates three separat e discussions between Judge Stevens and one woman and two men regarding the smell coming from Emily’s property. The narrator knows the details of the conversations well enough to quote Judge Stevens’s directly. â€Å"‘Dammit sir,’ Judge Stevens said, ‘will you accuse a lady to her face of smelling bad?’† (Faulkner 158). Also earlier when Emily purchased arsenic, â€Å"So the next day we all said, â€Å"’She will kill herself’; and we said it would be the best thing† (Faulkner 161). â€Å"and we said it would be for the best thing,† shows how the town is judgmental and takes Emily’s â€Å"falling† as poor moral to the town. The gossip always being a constant factor to Emily is the main reason how the town was able to motivate Emily to motivate Homer. She knew that she would not be able to have her personal needs above the town’s expectations to hold her on a pedestal to preserve the south. The expectations, interference and insistent gossip from the town were the main motivation for  Emily to kill Homer. Emily was not able to keep up the faà §ade of being the Southern lady that the town of Jefferson wanted while still upholding her own sexual needs of a grown woman. This leads her to the ultimate decision to murder Homer Barron and keep his body for her own necrophiliac relationship to be able to put the town at ease and calm her own conscience. The murder and necrophilia is a direct result of the town’s expectation, interference, and gossip and are the motivating factors needed for Emily to finally snap.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Term Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Research - Term Paper Example However, during the party, where Madame Loisel has an amazing time, she loses the necklace. In a haste to replace the necklace without Forestier knowing, Loisel and her husband spend all of their money, as well as money they do not have, to buy this new necklace. The debt puts the Loisels into poverty. The irony of this story is seen at the end, when Loisel meets up with Forestier after many years, only to find that the necklace that was lost was hardly worth a percentage of the one used as a replacement. The themes found in â€Å"The Necklace† are irony and greed. Madame Loisel longed for a life of luxury. She refused to go out because she felt that she did not meet any of the standards of the â€Å"rich women,† as was stated in the story. She lusted after what others had, and cared not for all that she had in her average life. It was Madame Loisel’s greed that caused the ironic outcome of the story. Had she not been so set on being charming and living, if only briefly, the life that she had longed for, she would have not lost the cheap necklace and gone on to replace it with a much more exquisite piece of jewelry. Her greed brought in the irony of her and her husband having to live worse than ever for ten years. Her greed blinded her of just how precious life was despite all of the material possessions. It was because of this that enabled her to witness how others below her were forced to live. From the first paragraph of the story, â€Å"The girl was one of those pretty and charming young creatures who sometimes are born, as if by a slip of fate, into a family of clerks. She had no dowry, no expectations, no way of being known, understood, loved, married by any rich and distinguished man; so she let herself be married to a little clerk of the Ministry of Public Instruction,† it was clear that Madame Loisel was a self-spoiled girl. This is shown in the way that she automatically links being pretty to having a perfect, rich

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Explain in your own words what you understand either by the term Essay - 1

Explain in your own words what you understand either by the term 'hegemony' - Essay Example Because of the use of hegemony in a variety of contexts, it extends to other disciplinary, as cultural hegemony that discusses about philosophic and sociological concept, originated by the Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci, that a culturally diverse society can be ruled or dominated by one of its social classes. It is the dominance of one social group over another, e.g. the ruling class over all other classes. The theory claims that the ideas of the ruling class come to be seen as the norm; they are seen as universal ideologies, perceived to benefit everyone whilst really benefiting only the ruling class. For Gramsci as a cultural hegemonist, he posits a strategic distinction, between a War of Position and a War of Maneuver. The war of position is intellectual, a culture war in which the anti-capitalist educators, agitators and organizers seek to have the dominant voice in the mass media, other mass organizations, and the schools (and actively conduct ideological subversion). Once achieved, this position will be used to increase class-consciousness each revolutionary theory and analysis, and to inspire revolutionary organization. On winning the intellectual war of position, socialist leaders would then have the necessary political power and popular support to begin the war of maneuver - the armed insurrection against capitalism (Ratna) For Imperialist, Hegemony has its own specific concept that is called as cultural imperialism  that is the domination of one culture over another by a deliberate policy or by economic or technological superiority. Cultural imperialism  can take the form of an active, formal policy or a general attitude. A metaphor of  colonialism  is employed: the cultural products of the  first world  "invade" the  third world  and "conquer" local culture. In the stronger variants of the term,  world domination  (in a cultural sense) is the explicit goal of the  nation-states  or  multinational corporations  that ex port the culture.  The term is usually used in a pejorative sense, often in conjunction with a call to reject such influence. A Perspective of Hegemony in Contemporary Power Power as one of political imperialist’s instruments has created new dynamic purposes and targets to legalize the x-interest. Here, x-interest is something hidden and can be only defined by one person who wants his or her power runs well. X-interest, which is not specifically designed under the social norms, has changed into general social norms, which is legalized by society under pressure and forces. Here, strategically mission is directed to the x-interest. Therefore, imperialist requires more than sacrifice to achieve the target. When the power has been a huge formation, it extends to other that we call as cultural imperialism. This affects all aspects in social life including way of life, ideology and life tendencies. Mr. Muammar Qadaffi, the president of Libya is one of the examples that can be fou nd in TV and becomes hot issues. To run his power, he uses many factors what I call â€Å"Regional Nationalism†. It talks about brute nationalist who defends his country from other states invasion. For years, stability had become the evidence that he can lead Libya well without any rebellion, protests or new revolutionists (Suhady). Based on the issue, the concept of hegemony, in this case, directs to the strategically mis

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

How interest rates affect peoples purchasing decisions Assignment

How interest rates affect peoples purchasing decisions - Assignment Example The paper explores four types of writing at our most recent workshop. They are summary, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Some of the key differences between them were highlighted. An analysis provides a detailed examination of an article in order to make inferences while an evaluation is an informed judgment arising from an assessment or appraisal of a situation. A summary provides a brief but concise version of an article while a synthesis involves combining separate elements into a coherent and connected whole in order to make a new point. The level of interest rate determines whether people save or consume. At higher levels of interest, some persons save more and consume less. According to Pashigian, a higher interest rate makes current consumption relatively more expensive compared with future consumption. This is a result of the substitution effect that induces the consumer to reduce current consumption and save more. A rise in the interest rate also leads to an increase in wealth for savers as it increases the returns to savings. However, when the interest rate falls there is less or no incentive to save and so people prefer to spend their income on consumer items such as cars, clothing, jewelry, and appliances. Some of these consumer items are financed through borrowing. This confirms the fact that people tend to spend more on consumer items when interest rates are low.

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Lobbying and Legislative Red Tape Impacting Reform Research Paper

Lobbying and Legislative Red Tape Impacting Reform - Research Paper Example Governments have been working on reducing red tape especially in America and Europe. Red tape hinders competition and productivity in any organization. Companies and citizens find it difficult to comply with the overburdening requirements by the government. These rules have become a burden to businesses and society at large (Nova Scotia, 10). This is why controlling of policies and guidelines is exceedingly significant. However, the advocating for reduction in red tape could impose more harm to the businesses by adding more regulations. Some researchers argue that only green lobbying can prevail over red tape. This green lobbying will ensure that only the relevant regulations concerning taxation and other significant issues will be stemmed out. The regulations which most affect businesses are to be stemmed out to allow for the growth of businesses. These green tactics can improve the economy of the country and, therefore, the quality of life. There has been massive lobbying involving non-governmental and governmental groups. These groups have been fighting for few rules and regulations which involve the economy and especially small enterprises (OECD). These measures prohibit the existing obligations and are also working to simplify the obligations. The simplification of the red tape regulations largely depends on the problems that are facing the society at large. Simplification also includes simplification of licenses and reducing the procedures involved in obtaining the licenses. The setting up of new procedures a ccording to the lobbyists is extremely significant. These new procedures have to be incorporated in the institutional setting of strategy creation. Red tape causes an increase in problems connected with excessive government regulations of businesses. Campaigns regarding bureaucracy will be of use if they entail efforts by individuals both in the inside and outside of red tape. The people on the inside